Epicurean Scholarchs

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Autoritative critic is T. DORANDI, Ricerche sulla cronologia dei filosofi ellenistici, Stuttgart 1991 (and his entries in several updated international encyclopedias)

[edit] Epicurean Scholarchs and ancient historical Epicurean figures

The Suda (10th c. liter. encycl.) reports the number 14 of scholarchs up to the assassination of J.Caesar in44 B.C. (227 years from the death of Epicurus); Diogenes Laertius reports 12 distinguished figures but the last defined 'successor' (diadochos) is Apollodorus; others, defined 'eminent' but sophistai, were Zeno (not 'scholarch' but 'auditor' ...), Dem. the Lac., Diog. of Tarsus, Orion ("Orion", unidentified elsewhere, may be wether a Roman or Greek name, from lat. orior: 'to rise' of a star ). He don't name other 'successors' not recognized ('sophistai', orators, Roman invaders, expatriate Epicureans, for sure with negative connotation. ). Diogenes L. (middle 2nd c. BC, Alexandrian cast of mind) was chiefly no famous poet and a nationalistic anecdotist biographer (of Greeks, a flag-waver), who was of interest to pedantic Byzantine medieval copyists: he quotes 52 of his own epigrams; his book was dedicated to a Platonic lady, but he don't cover representatives of Middle Platonism and of Neoplatonism; he wasn't an Epicurean (in spite of an entire final chapter, but as it was the sole survived still popular school), therefore he didn't known esoteric full texts (Usener: an eclectic compiler; Bailey: book almost intolerable as literature); it's not definite whether - for bulk reasons - the three letters and P.D. have been abridged (e.g. see Diog. Oin.), and whether Pythocles Letter is original or an Epicurean compilation. It seems Thespis preceded for short time Protarchus of Bargylia (not named by D.L., nor Phaidros, nor Patron, nor Philonides, nor Philodemus, Diog. of Oinoanda, Diogenianus etc.: all eminent but xenophile, with given Roman security) . Lactantius in IV cent. wrote: "The teaching of Epicurus has been a l w a y s the most celebrated" [ Inst, III, 7].

The legal standing of the schools in Athens, their headships and property (each scholarch had his own dear heirs) were always awkward. Aged Hermarchus, but no Athenian citizen, was not permitted to be real estate proprietor and heir. Dionysius of Lamptrai [PHERC. 1780, fr.VII:15 (on kepos' history)] in his will nominated heir apparent the next diadochos of the Garden; but thus didn't it occur in another extant will of Polystratus. Perhaps there was no estate (just filled by Polystratus' 'second self' Hippocleides); afterwards the Garden and school was entering into a century of obscurity; so in the diplomatic embassy of philosophers in Rome of 155 B.C., an obscure Protarchus of Bargylia didn't receive any opportunity. But it kept “uninterrupted continuity of his school, which, while every other school has declined, is always lasting, and so numberless party of followers who hand down each other the scholarchy” [ D.L. X, 10]. The roman legislation of provinces imposed later on the diadochoi, the successors, to be roman citizen (non licet nisi ex civibus Romanis adsumi diadochum): each sect was considered possibly subversive.

  • The masters kathegemones of the 'Garden' and distinguished Epicureans.
  • Metrodorus, born in 331/330 BC in Lampsachus. He became pupil of Epicurus in Lampsacus. and co-administrator of Athens' Garden: according to Cicero paene alter Epicurus almost a second Epicurus. He died in 278/7 BC, seven or eight years before his master. But he wrote an unusual book On Epicurus poor health. He was the linguist (hints in Nature's book 28) and financier (and financer?) of the community and studied sense of touch (it exist a papyrus On Sensation(fr. tr. Ed. Monet 1996). In an existing Batides' letter about his painful passing (dropsy) he declared "I have left nothing", hardly interpretable. His children had to be protected by the School, because they were no heir-at-law after Solon's law, and the estate passed to his brother Timocrates [according to the Körte' s conjecture], who had also defamed Epicurus. Bibl.: Körte, Metrodori Epicurei Fragmenta, 1890.
  • Hermarchus, born in Mytilene on Lesbos from a poor family in 340 and died around 250 BC of paralysis. In his early youth he had practiced rhetoric and only after the foundation of the Garden in Athens (306 BC) he followed Epicurus and espoused the opinion that rhetoric shouldn't be granted the status of an art, except the epideictic one, as means of expository clarity. He became leader of the Garden despite being a metic. "The ones who gave assistance to Epicurus, in particular Hermarcus, who wrapped him in a shroud, and kept vigil beside his remains" [Phld.]. In Against & On Empedocles (22 books, fr. 28 of POxy. 3318) he treated the origin of law. Reportedly he was vegetarian and prone to frugality, but to middle-class appearance. Philonides of Laodicea collected his letters [Fr. 4, 40, LONGO].
    Inscrutable is every life, it wanders dragged by occurrences without any certainty. Hope forces the souls to fortitude. [...] [Herm. at Stob., Flor. IV 34, 66; concern justified by his GPI, whereof he died; no news of euthanasia]. If we need praying, whenever we enter upon a new matter - small too -, how won't we go to infinite? Sure enough, in order to pray would we need another praying [...] [Herm. at Procl., In Ti. II 66 D – E] Meat-eating [a not necessary desire; n. of ed.] does not remove any trouble from our nature, or any want which, if not satisfied, leads to pain. The gratification it provides is v i o l e n t, and is quickly followed by the opposite. For it contributes not to the maintenance of life but to the v a r i a t i o n of pleasures..." [U464; Hermarcus by Porphyrius, On Abstinence, I.5; taken from H.'s Against Empedocles; chap. 49-54 are surely Epicurean also, but not surely of Herm. Of course all is bowdlerized by Neoplatonic Porph.].
    Hermarchus says, that the god does not seem to harm wrongdoers, even if the worst of mankind escape notice according to this argument. And the laws advance measures only just not admitting lag of punishment... (gap) [Philod., On Piety. Obbink ed.]
  • Polyaenus of Lampsachus, one of the most old students of E., often guest of the Athen's Garden mostly in adulthood. Practicing mathematics and geometry, he worked to 'minima' (elachistos ) demonstration through not-Euclidean mathematics/geometry (as it comes out from Demetrius L.'s fragments). From this approach followed a succession of 'alternative' mathematicians in the Garden: Basileides, Philonides, Protarchus B., Zeno S., Demetrius the Laconian. He died at Lampsachus (phthisis) very before Epicurus in 286 BC, but after his pupil Pytocles. He was remembered fondly on the 6th of Metageitnion. But he was also a pragmatist sage: “reason heals what it has wounded”. Remnants of biography in PHerc 1761, which keeps also Leonteus', Idomeneus', Batides' (Metrodorus' sister and Idomeneus' wife) lives, and her letter to young stepson Polyaenus (born from Cizicus hetaira Hedeia) about the death of his father. Some Works: On Philosophy, Book 1; On Definitions (on main term of Epicurean doctrine, and on inference through signs); On Aporiai (against Euclides' First Principles); Against Ariston; On the Moon; Against the Rhetors. Bibl.: Demetrius Lacon, On the Aporiai of Polyaenus. Tepedino Guerra, Polieno. Frammenti, 1991. "... among the former (Euclidean geom.) are there heterogenous aporias too. In order to get conciseness and an easy resolution of aporias, we gathered in group the ones of same type, so as solutions were very easy, and thanks to a lowest number of reasoning". [In support of Polyaenus' Objection PHerc. 1429]"
  • Idomeneus , born in Lampsachus c. 325 BC from rich and high-born family (Strabo, XIII 589-590'C). Epicurean from 310/309 BC . He practised Mathematics and geometry. Young pupil (he started from fifteen), after the return of Epicurus to Athens, he abandoned the school for a ministerial position by Antigonus Monophtalmus (Plut. Adv. Col., 1126 c) and possibly made any faithlessnesses, but later led the Epicurean School in his fatherland as a friend together with Leonteus and Apollodorus, the brother of Pythocles [PHerc. 176, fr. 5; Phild, Epic II, PHerc 1289, fr. 6, col' III]: he was convinced by Epicurus that with him he would attain a longer lasting glory (Sen. Ep. XXI,3), but continued having a notable estate (he wanted to make rich Pytocles' too: U135) and connections perhaps with Thracian court of Lysimachus till after 385; he allowed annual subsidies to the Garden; possibly he was the economic founder of the very Garden[Atheneus VII, 279; D.L. X 4-5; Plutarch, Adv. Col. 1117 d-e]. I. stayed consistent to his teacher through an exchange of letters. He married Metrodorus' heiress sister, and will take care of illegitimate children of his brother in law, died before his time. Philodemus (?) refers to a Life of Idomeneus, and quotes five letter about him in PHerc 176, to Epicurus for the death of Metrodorus and another on funeral of Apollodorus ; by Épicurus to him about Timochrates split ; by him to a diseased friend on consolation of philosophy; by him to uncertain addressee about Apollodorus. He wrote On Socratics against their dialectic and irony, and On Samothrace (according to Souda). In Epicurus' Symposium he defend sophistic rhetoric [Phild., De rhet., PHerc 1672]. The Garden of Lampsachus was protagonist of an incident of heterodoxy [Phild, Epic. II, Pherc 1289, fr. 6 col III], later disappeared.
  • Leonteus of Lampsacus, one of the most known students through many fragments of letters, written to him by Epicurus after his return to Athens in PHerc. 1418 and 310. He and his wife or concubine Themista knew the master during the latter stay in Lampsacus, and named their son Epicurus.
  • Colotes. (b. in Lampsacus around 320 BC). The youngest of Epicurus's pupils (pet name Kôlôtarion) in Lampsacus between 310-306 BC, he may later have conducted an Epicurean school there. He dedicated a book to Ptolemy II Philadelphos: Conformity to the Teachings of Other Philosophers Makes Living Impossible in dispute with Academician/skeptic Arcesilaus(268 BC onwards), who would make life impossible, upholding the world is distinct from what is perceived through sensation . Plutarchus (an Academician) quibbled with him in Against Colotes about that book. Perì nomôn kai doxês discusses on friendship ad social rules. In Against Eutidemus (the Cynic) he censures the performance by the Cynic and Stoic (Zeno and Menoedemus) philosophers of self-made cookery, like women and slaves (a middle-class taboo at those times ...).
  • Cronius of Lampsachus, friend of Idomeneus, Leonteus, Arcephon (astronomer), was picked out by Philodemus in order to bring honour to philosophical life compared with Mithres' political one [Pragmatiae PHerc. 1418]. Mithres was a financial backer and addressee of Epicurus' Letter on Occupations.
"Cronius debates skilfully when is required, even though he is not [.....] and is unused to logic chopping because Eudoxus himself did not spend enough time on philosophy" "Leontion too has frequently spoken of you (Cronius) to Epicurus with kind and fair terms, and so has Pythocles , whom have you sent to stay with us (in Athens), and who is taking charge of your sons (Metrodorus'? letter to Cronius) "[Phil., De Epicuro II (PHerc. 1289)]
  • Pythocles of Lampsachus. Talented pupil, who died very young at 290 B.C. or thereabouts. He was reprimanded by Epicurus (about 295 B.C.) because he didn't believe in Gods, influenced by Eudoxus of Cnidos school of Cyzicus(408-356), with threatened desertion to this school, and having tried convincing Leonteus and other mates (293-291 B.C.). Is he the addressee of the renowned letter?
For how is it possible to feel pity for a young man when one considers all that can be inferred from Pythocles' achievements under the instruction of Metrodorus? Although not yet eighteen years old, he had not lived the life [of an idler], and had no worries about losing all his beauty [Philodemus, De morte IV]
  • Polystratus, young pupil of aged Epicurus (on the basis of chronology and lexical homogeneousness) and afterwards third scholarch. His collaboration and friendship with Hippocleides - perhaps jointly scholarch, they died at the same time in old age - was similar to Epicurus Metrodorus team. They shared their patrimony (lame...) in common and supported the school together (Epicurus' income had been appropriarted by legal heirs, like Aminomachus and Timochrates did before)[Valerius Maximus I, 8, 17; PHerc.1418, col.XVIII, 10, Diano]. Long and well preserved passages of his work On Irrational Contempt of common opinions of the People (Perì alogou kataphroneseos ton en tois pollois doxazomenon P.Herc 336 / 1150), updates Diogenes L.', Cicero', Seneca's records on Epicurean epistemology. He rejects the argument by analogy from the lower animals to men. Common reasonableness is revalorized against Cynics’ animal minded way of life and Skeptics' dropping out. Most of all, value judgment's universality, after Platonic Socrates, is resolutely denied, along with rejection of syllogisms and inductions, but he acknowledges pragmatic judgment as trustworthy, as man set himself apart from animal impulsive nature; he counters to Pyrro's entire scepticism, as long as one bears in mind man’s physiology and for whom is the end-goal (confirming concise P.D. XXII: “calculate the end-goal which is given to each one”, ed's n.). Qualities are to be understood as ever-comparative adjective or gradable adverb, not as celestial unalterable essences but as gradable ideas which can be "more or less" (good, friendly etc.) according to our present interest and existing choice range, that is valid fact-finding pragmatic means. He exemplifies with 'heavy' (i.e. different for young and elder persons but real for each of them), and with personalized therapeutic. Even if related to naive opinions – therefore in part unfit - it's more judicious not criticizing common people's values publicly (against Cynics' gall).

Other extant works: On philosophy PHerc. 1520. Ethics" PHerc 346 (Vogliano's attrib.).

  • Dionysios of Lamptrai. He contended for succession against a dissident Diotimos, failing Polystratus' designation of the successor [fr. VIII, Croenert]. Few extant notes can be found in Diog. Laert. 10,25, in Polystratus and in the fragments of PHerc. 1780 of Philodemus. He nominated heir apparent the next scholarch, perhaps because he had no legal heirs portion.
  • Basileides of Tyrus (Syria) (c. 245-175 BC.) pupil of Artemon, scholarch in 201 (Philodème, PHerc. 1780), teacher (together with Thespis Pherc. 1044. Gallo, 11) of Philonides of Laodicea on the Pontus; was also committed in mathematicians' discussions in Alexandria about Apollonios of Pergès. He debated together with Thespis about anger against Nicasicrates and Timasagoras, who were opposite to all passions [Phil. On Anger, PHerc. 182]. Philodemus expounds that anger (orghê) is natural only if it's an 'enforcement' for recovery of a concrete damage. Fury (thymos) for point of honour is unnatural because it has no limit (goes to infinity), it isn't intersubjective.
  • Protarchos of Bargylia (c. 220 150), (contemporaneous of Philonides, the pupil of Basileides and Thespis), "an illustious man" (Strab. XIV, 2, 20); interested in mathematics. Not quoted in Diog. L., but scholars agree: [W.Aly, Real Enziklopaedia, XXIII (1957) p.924; Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, I, p. 423 Oxford 1972]. Proposed for the first time by Gassendi, who pointed out also Diogenes of Tarsus as successor, the author of Chosen Lessons on Epicurean ethic [ D. L. X, 26, 97, 118; Strabo, XIV 675], but doubted about the two Alexandrian Ptolemais.
  • Apollodorus of Athens ((the "Kepotyrannos". 190-110 BC). Autor of On the Gods, Philosophical Maxims' Collection (Epicurean) [Diog. Laert. 7,181], Perì tón philosophòn hairéseón (schools) [Diog. Laert. 1,60] Perì nomothetòn (legislators) [Diog. Laert. 1,58], Chronology [Diog. Laert. 10, 13], Perì Epikoùrou [Philod. Stoicorum hist.] ... and of more than 400 unnamed vols. He was quoted by Philodemus in On Gods III, Pherc. 152/157, col IX, 36 ff. Possibly he restored the 'sacred' authority of the Athenian school and its economic privileges (συντάξεις), as suggests his sobriquet. The rich Albucius was there in 121 ff.

The Garden flourished again and internationally with:

  • Demetrius the Laconian (c. 150-75). He wasn't scholarch after his master Apollodorus (according to Puglia 1988 p.45 sq., Romeo 7, p.28, T.Dorandi in Der Neue Pauly: Enzyclopadie der Antike, Stuttgart 2000), being contemporaneous and classmate of Zeno (Strabo may be contestable ). "A great man" according to Sextus Emp. [Adv. Log. II, 348], he taught in Miletus (educational place for rich Roman scions: perhaps for Claudius Nero and Quintus too, mentioned in his On Poems). A fragment discusses his views of gnesios (orthodox): pleasure is the completion, not only avoiding suffering [PHerc. 1012, col. XXXIV 3-9. ed. Puglia)]; he is perhaps the author of 'On Vocabulary and On Words’. Another frag. tells on the size of sun [PHerc. 1013. Ed. Romeo]. "Man is prone (sympheron) to pursue virtue out of nature, because he pursues his interest, and out of nature he has begun to find names of the things". Very important philological evidence is that Epicurean meaning of 'natural' was not, of course, pantheistic or normative, but 'spontaneous', 'constrictive', 'motivational', under different and circumstantial contexts. [PHerc.1012 col. 41,5 & PHerc 1786]. He made clear the historical diatribe on sensations: they are only at all times actual, with experiential value: "below, then, mentally discernible things are set up against the sensorily perceivable ones... he [Epicurus] said therefore: «All sensations are not-unfounded (a-lêthê, that means either true or real)»". [Textual Aporias (frg.57)] Sextus reports the same [Adv. math., VIII]. In his protreptycon to a young man he defines philosophy and physiology as instrumental goods against troubles and tension [PHerc. 1006].

Bibl.: De Falco, Demetrio Lacone (1923). A. Angeli, T. Dorandi, Il pensiero matematico di Demetrio Lacone, in: CrHerc. 17, 1987. D.L. Aporie testuali ed esegetiche in Epicuro, E.Puglia ed., Napoli 1988: fragments of his minute exegesis of the texts bequeathed by the masters. On the Puzzles of Polyaenus (PHerc. 1083, 1258, 1429, 1642, 1647, 1822). On Poems (ed. Romeo). Perhaps Ethics PHerc. 831 (ed. Koerte). Enkeiridion (on epistemology and value judgements), quoted by Philodemus' On Signs. Demetriakon (on logic, against Stoics) ibid.. Scrolls of D. as well show stylistic characteristics of the Mediterranean area of Asia Minor.

  • The syndiagoghé, educational comradeship, , against sclerotic process of memorization of famous sayings, was re-consolidated by Zeno of Sidon, who practised textual and philological criticism (acribeia) on the prose of Epicurus. All through the period of obscurity and anarchy, during Mithridates VI rule philosophy had declined, texts had been possibly 'canonized' through stock phrases, especially in the Middle-East. He wrote about aesthetic and literary style. The very Philodemus called those dissidents (sophistai) "helmsmen on the basis of one book", i.e. men of straw without subtlety/inference. He reported that the very Zeno questioned the authenticity of the Letter to Pythocles (On Celestial Phenomena), the treatise On Virtues, perhaps a Sophistai's 'input' [Phil. Against Sophistas. P.Herc 1005]. Zeno's Works: Epitomes of On ways of life (by Philodemus); On Inequality of Atoms, On Ends, On Grammar, On Style, On Research, On Proverbs and Similars, On Usefulness of Poetry, On Piety, Against the Treatise of Craterus, On Geometrical Proofs (imminent digital 'endoscopy', momentous for Epicurean geometry's conception) deny that the propositions which follow the principles are completely deductive, that is consistent [i.e.: they are demonstrated without something else being admitted for them, perhaps unconscious prolepseis, r's n.] (Proclus, On Euclid's Elements). About epistemology and logic (after Philodemus' epitomes) he studied in depth the question of the circumstantial conclusion.
    "Blessed is he who has the enjoyment of present pleasure and the assurance that he would have enjoyment either throughout life or for a great part of life without the intervention of pain, or should pain come, that it would be short-lived if extreme, but if prolonged it would still allow more joy than evil.[at Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, III.17.38, who attended Z.'s lectures together with Atticus].
  • Phaedrus (138 - 70 BC), from rich Athenian family. Since 88 he lived in Rome for political caution. With backing of Roman aristocracy, he returned to Athens after the conquest of Sulla and became scholarch. Captivating talker and epigrammatist. He wrote On the Gods. His devotee pupil Appius Saufeius (brother of Lucius) erected a herm of him in the Eleusinion of Athens. “(I) spend a great deal of time with Phaedrus, who, as you know, I am particularly fond of” [Atticus at Cicero, Fin. 5.1.3]

Throughout Imperial Age the Garden scattered, but the seeds were shaded by the grove, and unity of Epicureanism was in crisis in II century, divided between gnesioi and sophistai: with Greek Ptolemy and autochthonous Ptolemy in Alexandria ("a capital philosophical city, together with Rome" [Phld, Rhetor. II fr.3]) and the centers of attraction in Lampsachus, Mytilene, Miletus, Thebes, (Euboean) Chalcis, Apameia, Gadara, Kos, Naples, Pergamom, Rhodes, Amastris, Oenoanda, Rhodiapolis. Moreover, since 190 till 40 B.C. there was a succession of three influential Syrian-born Epicureans: Basileides, Protarchus, Zeno . The very Philodemus studied in Alexandria (with the huge library and associated philology school) before Athens: "in time when we (Philodemus) arrived to Athens leaving Alexandria", [PHerc. 1021, col. 34 Dorandi's ed.] and leaved after the teaching of Zeno. The satellite schools did not send any longer their share to Athens, according to "the deal of the sacrosanct refectory" [Philod. On Piety]. Actually they didn't participate in the life of the Athenian Garden other than vicariously, and Philodemus declares that Epicureanism was far distant from believed unanimous consent. In time the Athenian Garden evolved from free debate to a place of book culture, with examination of witnesses which was interpreted at varying depths of understanding. Alexandria, with its magnificent library, was now to outshine (89-88 B.C.) Athens, where the school's libraries underwent a dispersal of libraries, seized by Roman generals. E.g., Sulla seized, among other books, Aristotle's autographs.

  • Phaedrus and Patron were already cosmopolitan figures, but even in 175 B.C. Demetrius I Soter, pupil of Philonides stayed in Rome, as hostage. Certainly he scattered for the first time a philosophical Epicureanism ... before his escape.
  • Philonides. Born in Laodicea on Pontus (Syria) around 200 B.C., mathematician (his master Apollonios od Pergamos called him 'the great surveyor') “had as a first master Eudemos, then Dionisodoros, and was later pupil of Artemon of Laodicea (philologist, teacher of Philonides in Antioch; author of Commentry on books 1-33 of Peri Physeos) whom he followed in Antioch ; of Basileides and Thespis in Athens during 18 months. In 175 B.C. he made a convert of Antiochus IV Epiphanes king of Syria (175-164 B.C.) and of his successor, Demetrius I Soter (162-150 ), who went to suzêthêsis at school in front of the palace. Ph. fixed a rule of memorable texts (initiator of Epicurean philology and compilations “for slow pupils”, with collection of the works of Epicurus, “for which he met much expenses” fr. 66), wrote a 'breviary', a commentary of XVI and XVII of Perì Physeos, a Garland of Letters of the 'first four', with thematic catalog of 250 books. According to him, Epicurus rejected apodeictic axioms of mathematicians ('sophists'), not inference of them through analogy, and he kept at it. Antioch became a capital of Epicureanism, with a supplied Epicurean Library with smiling gods' statues. Ph. wrote an exegesis of VIII On Nature, and other exegesis of geometrical nature "about Epicurus' doctrine on minima" [(Philodemus?),Philonides' Life, PHerc. 1044. Gallo, fr. 14]. Seneca derived most of his knowledge of Epicurus and a pattern of his 'Letters to Lucilius' from Philonides' garland of Epicurean letters. Ph. was a priest, unmarried (“though many urged him to marriage … he didn't take care of”[ibid. 3]; but at least two natural sons), friend of mathematician Zenodorus's (whose treatise On isometric figure is lost, but quoted by Theon of Alexandria), he "had functions as counselor, ambassador and so on" (ibid. fr. 27) but without neglecting philosophy; he lived "(as) a free man and passionately fond of a philosophy ended to safety from such [?] evils, avoiding the similar ones", but he was often homesick for Laodicea and for his family.

Archaeologic finds: CIA II 605 = IG II2 1236): 2nd c. B.C. in Athens. Eleusian priests' decree of honorary citizenship to Ph. for aid to Greek ambassadors in Antioch.
SGDI 2580, col. IV U. 78-80 = A. Plassart, Bull. Corr. Hell. 45, 1921, p. 39 s.: Delphian list of important priestly members.

  • In 121 B.C. young Albucius (politician, brilliant speaker, poet), the first known educated Roman who studied in the Garden, scattered the genuine Epicureanism in Rome [Cic. De nat. deor. I, 93], then he retired again in Athens.

Epicurianism revived in Italy also because many members were expelled e.g. from Phalannai and Messene (Arkadia) for their 'atheism' and doctrine of pleasure, which have made young people go soft [malakian] [Aelian Varied Hist. IX 12; Athenaeus (XII 547), and PHerc. l55 & 339], and the very Philodemus was expelled from Himera (Magna Graecia) for same reasons, and his goods seized.

  • Patron. In Rome he had become acquainted with Cicero, Atticus, Saufeius, Memmius , Catullus. With him ends up supremacy of Athenian school (around 51 BC). He held, in confidence, people needed to follow social rules for escaping guilty verdict, but decisions had to refer only to acting individual, or to reciprocal favors of friends ("omnia ad se referant [self-concerning], nec quicquam alterius causa fieri putant").
  • In 90 B.C. in Rome, the fluent Phaedrus persuaded the twenty-year-old Atticus, and virtually the younger Cicero [Fam. XIII, 1,2.] [«I love Zeno as much as You...» Ad Att. V. 11,6]. Both debate on Death (Ad Att., XII, 18, 1, ff.), On Epicurean State conceiving (Cic. De republica), on Friendship (Cic. De Amicitia)]. "But I (Atticus), whom you like to attack as devoted to Epicurus, spend a great deal of time with Phaedrus, who, as you know, I am particularly fond of, in the gardens of Epicurus, which we just passed. Yet, aimed by the old proverb, I remembered the living; but I could not forget Epicurus, even if I wanted. Our associates have his likeness not only on wood panels, but even on their drinking cups and rings." [Cicero, Fin. 5.1.3]. Atticus was author of 'Annales', a Roman history from origins up to 54 B.C. "Please send me the books which I wrote to you the other day about, especially Phaedrus' On the Gods...". [Cic.to Att. XIII, 39; 8/ 16/ 45 B.C.]. During his long residence in Athens: "Titus Pomponius son of Titus dedicated a statue to Phaedrus son of Lysiadès, from Berenicedes' deme" [Pedestal's inscription in Athens]; reciprocated by Phaedrus' daughter. Same homage from Saufeii brothers in IG II-III 3897 stele.
  • Philodemus (c. 110-40, from the Greek speaking place most nearby to World Center - the ideal extension of Athens, he left after the death of Zeno - fought against the phenomenon of marginal dissidence ('parricides') in the 1st cent. BC. Sophistai were active in the centers of Kos and Rhodes, Nicasicrates (leader of Rhode's school?) on impassibility and flattery, Timasagoras on anger, Antiphanes on gods, Bromius on politic / rhetoric: Amafinius, Rabirius, Catius Insuber studied there, criticized by Cicero and Cassius, ignored by Lucretius and Philodemus on account of their poor language mastery. Phld.'s evidences on first Epicureanism are therefore solid.

In 121 Plotina obtained from Emperor Hadrian the diadochos citizenship law to be abrogated: licebit vel in peregrinum vel in civem Romanum hoc ius transferri "I do believe that, if somebody has been awarded the assistance of our doctrine, thanks to a careful reckoning [epilogismós; ed.'s n.], he will not propose an aim beyond completion [...]": no subversion, [IG II2 1099.16; Source: Marble stele discovered in Athens in 1890 (Archaeological National Museum)] . In that time Popillius Theotimus was the diadochos. After Trajan death she retired in her own villa to live more simply. The Trajan forum included a greek library called by P. 'Soul's Hospital'. A deep-rooted commitment to Epicureanism.

The very Emperor Trajan Hadrian - adopted son of Trajan and Plotina - as a young man, had lived in likely contact of Epicurean milieu in Antioch, when he was governor there; he built a villa in Tibur (in part still enduring) which copied certain Athenian cultural buildings; a library - the Odeon, a centre of Greek culture - arranged lectures and preserved for sure Epicurean ‘sacred texts’ inherited by Plotina. His coins cited the writing Humanitas, Felicitas, Libertas. H. wrote to the Epicurean scholarch Heliodorus, the successor to Popilius Theotimus., conceding financial support to his school (SEG 3,226; IG 1097). The Historia Augusta (16, 10) says H. had been “on the most familiar terms, familiarissimus with him ; but was it the same old Garden? After this letter (AD 125) he spent most time in Greece .
In 178 the Emperor Marcus Aurelius renewed the interest in the Epicurean school in Athens, by endowing ten thousand drachmas (Lucianus, Eunuch 3), going after example of his tutor Hadrian.

In third century AD the novelist Heliodorus narrates in Aethiopica (I. 16, 5) the story of lovers Knemon and Thisbe who arranged to meet in “the garden where the Epicureans have their monument” (mnêma). Statues of four weather-worn philosophers (the Big Four?) have been excavated at Dion.
Flavius Claudius Julianus “the Apostate” writes in 361 AD [Ep. 89b Bidez, 301c–d]:”Actually the gods, in their wisdom, have already destroyed the works of Epicureans, so the most of their books have ceased to be”. Alexandria's library fire and Herculaneum' s eruption are well known, other from-the-top-inspired arsons aren't. By then Athenian Garden was likely physically over.
The very young Saint Augustine was a failed follower ...: "My mind would give the palm to Epicurus, if I didn't believe in the soul's immortality [...]" [Confessions 6.46, 401 AD]. He must admit also the mind pleasure (delectatio mentis) Non enim amatur nisi quod delectat (“One doesn't love but what gives pleasure” ) but not bodily pleasure (delectatio carnis) …
Between the 4th and 5th centuries, the epigrammatist Palladas , one of the last Pagans, was the last known ancient Epicurean; he was born in Alexandria.

  • Beyond Diogenes' tradition, we have further simple data:

Apollonides of Lampsachus (addressee of Epicurus' letter) - Timarkos (Plutarque, Adv. Colot. 17, lll7b) - Hegesianax, son of Dosithéos and brother of Pyrson (U46). - Hippocléidès appears on PHerc 1418, col. XVIII as partner of Polystratus - Athénaios (not the Metrodore father, PHerc 176, fr. 5) - Diogenes of Seleucia (Babylon) (Ath. V, 211a-d: 55th Olympiad) beheaded by Alexander Balas, king of Syria - Matron (fr. 115 et 261), pedagogue - Ménestrate (Clément, Stromates V 12, 261, 31) - Cratèros, half brother of king Antigonos, was in the Garden. - Carneiscus (Epicurus' time: author of Philistas, on friendship; see: Il secondo libro del Filista, P.Herc 1027, Naples 1988 ) - Matro (in On Piety) - Apelles (U117: undamaged by paideia) - Mentorides brother of Metrodorus and Batides (letter of the latter) - Timocratès of Athens, executor of E. - Inscriptions of 4th century in Athens: Mammarion, Hedeia, Nicidion and Boidion; Erotion, Nicanor, Demetria [Erler, Frauen im Kepos] (but those names were popular, listed among several names of votive offering, but not in a row, no reference to the Garden) - “To those (Metrodorus') children I know that Aegeus and Diodorus too [...] are full of kindness” [Death day's letter to Idomeneus, PHerc. 1418 col XXXI, Diano] - Egnatius Celer (author of a lost De rerum natura; an imitation of Lucretius; he conducted a school of rhetoric in Rome but abandoned it together with Rutilius Rufus, transferring in Smyrna) - Asclepiades of Bithyne (in Athenaeus and Galenus U 381: I° B.C. Physician, atomist, anti-finalist, Lucretius' teacher; see Roman Persons) - Iraeneus of Miletus (staff trainee of Demetrius Lakon), - Athenaeus [U115] - Nisichrates (gods had no virtues, useless for immortal beings. PHerc 222) - Arképhon and Eudemos Eliodorus (good-humoured) - Demeter (sober pupil of Philonides); Artemon of Laodicea (Epicurean philologist, teacher of Philonides in Antioch; author of Commentry on books 1-33 of Peri Physeos ; Eudemos (scholiast of P. Physeos book 6) and Dyonisodoros (teachers of Philonides) [PHerc. 1044. Gallo)] - T . Claudius Nero, monetarius in 84 BC (dedicatee of Demetrius the Laconian's book) - Nicasichrates (proselytism contradicts 'live secluded ) - Apollodorus friend of Idomeneus [PHerc. 176, fr. 5] - Antiphanes (grandson of Epicurean Iolaus, he reproached relationship with politicians, fee-paying lessons), - Antigenes and Bakkhios (Philod. Epigr.) - Heliodorus of Antioch (minister of Seleucus Philopater) - Popillius Theotimus, Celsus (to whom Lucian dedicated his Alexander) - The "modest" Philocratès (stele) - Aristion, an Epicurean dissenter, organized the insurgence against the occupying Sulla through a terrorist regime In 88 B.C. (Plut., Sylla; Appian,Mithr.), which is why Zeno Epicurean was compelled to flee from the Garden (Phld. PHerc. 1005, col. X ) until Roman capture of Athens in 86 BC - Lysias of Tarsus (Phaidros' son and Antonius' partisan, early priest of Hercules), egalitarian tyrant who called himself an Epicurean [ATH., V, 215b] - Philidas, prophete of Apollo at Didymes - Dositeus and Arkephon (in De Epicuro, fr. 6, col 2; in Pragmatiae col. 19). Diodorus (in Pragmatiae col. 34) - Timarcus (Körte 38) - Ktesyppus (in Pragmatiae, col 30) - Chronius (Pragmatiae col. 19) - Metrodoros of Stratonika (Apollodorus' pupil) - Lychus (in Pragmatiae col. 4) - Apollophanes of Pergamos (Epicurean and politician) - Alexandros (perhaps of Hypata) Epicurean philosopher, friend of Plutarcus, character of dialog Quaest. conv. III and dedicatee of De Herodoti malignitate - Aurelius Belius Philippus , priest of Baal at Apamea [“AAAS”, 23 (1973) 39–84] - Pomedius, Statilius, Aufidius Bassus, Pollius Felix in 1st c. C. E (Seneca, Statius) - Prudentianus, Antonius (in 2nd cent C.E. by Galenus) - Menestratos (Clément, Stromates V 12, 261, 31: in a letter of Metrodorus). The scholarch Heliodorus (2nd c. A.D.), able to succeed Popillius Theotimus, although he was not a Roman citizen (stele) - Lucianus mentions the Epicurean Celsus, and the towns of Amastris and Pontus as being fulfilled of Epicureans - Diogenianus in II° cent C.T. disputed on Fate/Fortuitism/Freedom against Chrysippus, but was not consistent with Ep. [quotes in Eusebius' (263-339 C.E.) Praep. Evang. IV,3 10-13; VI,7-8] - Caecilius in Octavius of Minucius Felix speaks of principia seminalia, the atoms - Amaphinius (in Ambrogius) - The epigrammatist Palladas in 4th and 5th cent. [ILS 7780 = CIL IX, 48 bilingual]. Stele found in Brundisium, Italy. «Eucratidas, son of Peisidamos, from Rhodes, Epicurean philosopher», sec. cent. BC. [ILS 7781.]
Found inound in Puteolis (Neaples): Stallius Gaius has sedes Hauranus tuetur, ex Epicureio gaudivigente choro «Stallius Gaius Hauranus watches this site: he's a part of Epicurus' chorus, strengthened by his hedonè»
[BE 2002] Found in Macédonia, Béroia: «I am here, Archimedes, I lie down here. I wasn't, I have been, I'm no more, I don't worry. For now wayfarer!»
[SEG XXDC 977]. Graffiti found in a bedroom in Pompeii. Anonymous.: «This is a man: reason, past recollections, thankfulness».
[Budapest epitaph, by Hermarchus]: «Lubrica quassa levis fragilis bona vel mala fallax vita est data homini; non certo limite creta; per varios casus tenuato stamine pende(t)» (see above).
[BCH 5, 1881] G. Iulius Amynias of Samos, (called Isocratès in IG XII, 6, 293), philosopher and demiurge (coiner),obtaining Roman citizenship according to Inscription in Heraion of Samos, 6 B.C].
[BCH 82, 1968] Chytroi (Cyprus). Grave of Epicurean philosopher Python.
[Oinoanda Inscr.] L. Hedius Rufius Lollianus Avitus (Roman legate to Bithynia and Pontus in 165), Carus, Antipater of Athens, Théodoridas of Lindos Menneas, Niceratus of Rhodes, Dionysius, and the very author Diogenes (Flavianus?)
[C.I.G 4149] Tiberius Claudius Lepidus, Epicurean, optimas and priest of Amastris (2nd c).
[TAM II 910; 2nd c. A.D.] from Rhodiapolis] Heraclitus, doctor and Epicurean philosopher, priest of Asclepius and Hygieia.

There are evidences that in Harrân (today in Turkey) took refuge the rests of the Garden, banished, with the other schools, by Justinian (Byzantine emperor 527–565).

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