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He called himself "Epicuri de grege porcum" (the one time he mentions his Master) [Epist. I, 4, 15 to the elegiac (sad) poet Tibullus who had chronic bad mood]; but the pig was, perhaps in esoteric jargon too, an example of ataraxia for the sage [see: Diog.L. IX, 68] , and of frugality [Plato, Rep., 372 d]. That gives licence to read into his serene self-irony, very far from Tibullus' heauton timorumenos. For Jews and Christians it will be more frequently an example of impurity that will be read as self-biting.

He was, like his friend (potens amicus, society term instead of patron, not conflicting with mutual affection; but felt equality wouldn't need euphemisms and terminological connotations) and patronus Maecenas, a not very consistent Epicurean (a vulgar Epicureanism – as it has been said), not still knowing the damages of wine on the brain, nor caloric restriction benefits (at fifty three he dozed of... and died at fifty seven). But Cato the Elder abandoned himself to it and Plato even suggested it after the age of 40 (and died from indigestion at wedding banquet), Cicero was not of ideal weight (see here Papirius Paetus), and so on. He justified to compose poetry as a way out of clerical job (Epicurean reappraisal of artists, reasserted in Epist. I, 1) and in accord with Philodemus' On Poems, he condemned mere “lines devoid of substance that is harmonious claptrap" (versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorae) and emphasized text, not music, to be central to poetry [AP. 322; miscere utilem dulci, mixing usefulness with pleasantness, 342]. H.'s Ars Poetica is addressed to Philodemus' Epicurean patron Piso or to his family (Lucius Calpurnius Piso), who were patrons of the greek poet Antipater of Thessalonica too. At thirty four he got a landed estate in Sabina near Licenza (eight slaves and a bailiff, his wisdom port; “he lived almost in seclusion of Sabina and Tiburtina country", Svet. I, c) and perhaps a second one in Tibur (Serm. II, 6, 1-5; Ia 1, 31-32; to Maecenas “nemo generosior est te”, [Sermo I, 6] or were they Augustus' gift?) and began to like secluded life (as an eques – former tribunus equitum in spite of his freedman father - and as an Epicurean: vivo et regno, I live and rule [Ep., I. 10. 8]), and to escape false parties :"if nature should feel the need of something yet more savory, what a quantity of things are provided by earth and trees in ready abundance and of excellent savor!" [Sermones, II.2.70]; "I look down on philistines (...) for he who is desiring what is enough (...) why ought I to leave my Sabine valley for more stressful riches?" [Odes, III, 1]. And he dared to run free from dismissed Maecenas' possessiveness [Ep. I,7, 33. si … cuncta resigno “if... I give back everything”; Serm.. II, 6, 114-16; and no more dedications since 20 B.C.], being now under direct protection of Augustus himself (to whom, precisely, H. 'returned' his possessions in his will), who – after 20 B.C. - had got somewhat rid from politicizing ascendancy on both side.
That came after his philosophical (Philodemean, see Talk:Beauty) turning point: “Sure, leaving amusements, one is to seek wisdom, to let an amusement fit for children, and not to place the words sung after Latin lyric , but to learn real calculuses and limits of life” [Epist. II, 2, 140, to Florus, age 53, a leave]. [see parallelism with (Torquatus to Cicero) “ poets, who give us nothing solid and useful, but merely childish amusement” [De Fin. I, 21, 71-72]].

Christian literary critics wanted to interpret his clientele as disinterested equal friendship (two epistles instead deal with that as an adequate career; gift economy (euergesia) substituted a cultural state administration in that oligarchic republic) and his ataraxia as Stoic apathy, but that is inconsistent with Epist. I, 6, 14 (see quote below) nihil admirari | medèn agan that is 'not to be longing for' [ibid], that was common both to Pythagoras, Democritus and Epicurus' kinetic pleasures' purification (“ one does not avoid ...”, Phld., Choices § 2), and let's remember that chronologically Epicureanism precedes Stoicism. Philodemus in his Stoicorum Historia doesn't object Ariston of Chios “who declared indifference (diaphoria) as the purpose of life” [X 8-10, Dorandi]. In Epist. I, 18 – a real handbook for clients - he blames both bômolochia/scurrans adulatio and agroikia/asperitas/boorishness. Epicurus wrote first Diaporiai: behaviors that vary under special circumstances or characters, for example wealth, marriage, which are not to be avoided (but not longed-for). H.'s modus in rebus [Serm I, 1, 105 ] may also better be translated (dictionary allows, context too) by Epicurean 'limit' or 'proportion' (see below); he just continues: sunt certi denique fines , which cannot be moral discipline (Peripatetic metriotes, moderation') - H. is talking about wheat and appetite - , but a physical/neurological 'limit/omeostasis'. Even though sometimes he turns to the gods, it's a matter of political, phraseological, poetical correctness, like in Lucretius, or the very Epicurus': “If the Gods are propitious” [U99, 115 Arr.]. Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui, ultra quam satis uirtutem si petat ipsam [Ep. I, 6, 14]. How may be Stoic the one who sets a limit ('insanity') to virtue? Nor didn't H. favour political correctness about stoic natural law (see below Serm. I, 3, 113) and vaticination, that served as means to upper class (libelli Stoici inter Sericos iacere pulvillos amant; Epod VIII). Square culture refused to label him as follower of Epicurus - damned to the torments of hell by Dante and the Holy Writ - the most laically acute Roman poet ... According to De Witt, Horace's ethics, "without advertising the fact", was Epicurean for sure [De Witt, «Parrhêsiastic Poems of Horace». 'Class. Philol. 1935'; for Arrighetti too 'H.'s Epicurean statements are countless']. The supposed 'eclectic' philosophy in Book I of the Epistles is a 'dialogue in free reported speech', like Philodemus' mode, where the Epicureans are always having the last word. In Serm. I, III, (100-119), spontaneous generation of men, the beginning of society, of law and of development of language, under propulsion of usefulness and necessity, are similarly viewed by Lucretius. In Sermo II 6, he seeks a simple gladness, amid nature and friends, off the frenzied city. Philodemus is indicated as behavior guidance, better than his loved Callimachus, in Serm.. 1.2.105-122, and imitated as a poet in Carm. I.20; IV.12; Ep. 1.5. Horace's Epicurean Ethic key terms' Latin translation is more extensive than Lucretius'; his ataraxia is more empathetic and pragmatic; while L. recommends always the study of Nature, as if life were only necessity, H. recommends also prudence by more or less ( kata to pleon ê elatton) circumstantial (nunc) calculation for freedom from necessity with personal joy: cumque habeas plus pauperiem metuas minus et finire laborem incipias [Serm. I.1. 92-3], Sit mihi quod nunc est, etiam minus, et mihi uiuam [Ep. I,18, 106-07] [...] nunc somno et inertibus horis ducere sollicitae iucunda oblivia vitae [Serm. II.6.60], “anyway you possess more, you may fear poverty less, and begin stopping working hard” […] “I possess what I have got, less maybe too, and I'll live for myself” [...] “now among books of ancients, now in daydreams and playtime, to pass enjoyable distractions from concerned life". Both Horace [Epist., I.6; II.6: Hoc erat in votis: modus agri..., "that is sufficient: a little of land"; vivere naturae si convenienter oportet, “if living off the nature befits, do you know a happier place?” (Epist. I, 10, 12 ff.)] and Virgil [Geor. II 458 fortunatus ille qui novit agrestis..., "lucky the one who tried rustic charm"] had assimilated esoteric Epicurean pluralist Way of Life, which, beside philosophical life envisaged also the country gentleman life, after Philodemus (Metrodorus)' Peri oikonomias, and Epicurus' “prudence is something even more valuable than philosophy” [Menoec. 132; U570].
If all that is 'solid', one might construct upon some conjectures about Epicurean esoteric missing 'ways of life', beyond Usener's quotes, already noteworthy (22 times); for sure more consonant than Seneca, Plutarch, Cicero's ones. For instance the former [Ep. I, 6, 14]: to set a limit to virtue, and "even god the father [...] won't alter what is yet done [...]" [Carm. III, 29, 48: he or goddes the mother wouldn't have been completely happy; god isn't almighty, therefore more freedom for men, moreover past pleasures are safeguarded] might be incorporated; joy and improvement must be only personal (and of small group) and present (carpe diem): the whole (nature) do not change, last of all improve (esoteric Epicureanism can hardly be demagogic). By now not a few scholars wish Horace to be considered an acknowledged witness of Epicurean 'ways of life'.
Plotius (Tucca), Varius (Rufus), Vergilius (Maro), Quintilius (Varus), friends and disciples of Philodemus [clearly confirmed in P.Herc. Paris. 2 P.Herc. 1082 and 253 ], are also mentioned as close friends in Horace' Serm 1.2. “Values of simple and frugal existence, good friends, is my subject.” [Serm., II.2.1]
He and someone of his Epicurean friends agreed, in that epistolary garden, to criticize one another (with open mind and self-parody ..., even though the poet accepts variation and personal differences plus unequal friendship (quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos “whether usefulness or rectitude do motivate us to friendship” [Serm. 2. 6. 75] ) as unavoidable [nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur (Serm. I.3. v. 68); see Epicurus' V.S. 15] in order to improve their lives [parrhêsia (frank speech): the opposite of flattery: Fortasse et istinc (vitiis) largiter abstulerit […] liber amicus, consilium proprium (Serm. I.4.131-3), “Perhaps from vices might set me free a frank friend, an expedient advice”]: with Vergil, (Carm. I. 24 to much mourning); Licinius Murena (Carm.II. 10: on limitation); Dellius (Carm.II. 3: on constancy), Quinctius Hirpinus (Carm.II. 11: too much activeness); Iccius (Carm. I. 29: to much belligerent), Julius Florus (Epist. I.3: love of society news/gossips).
When Horace says carpe diem (catch the instant, seize the day) [Carm. I, 11] and frui paratis (benefit from what is on hand) [Carm. I, 31; the opposite is spem longam great expectations], he does not advise not to secure the one's next day but to make short plans (vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam, Carm. I. 4) and to expand deeds and perceptions to the reflective mind [(katapyknôsis); “he who can say every night 'I have lived happily' (bebiôtai), and this cannot be seized to me!" [Carm. III. 40 = V.S. 55], living without hurry, because: " Infinite and finite time afford equal pleasure", "Future days are neither wholly ours..." and "Goods are easy to obtain" are the pillars of Epicureanism]. The first of Satires' (Sermones) of Book I is a handbook against whine (mempsimoiria), a basis for autarky (content of oneself) and kinetic variation easy pleasures (after tetrapharmakos).

“Vow to keep definite limits” [Epistles, I.2.54]. "It's useful to try which boundary nature establishes to desires, what it involves, how much pain if they will be frustrated, and to distinguish the natural steadiness from empty opinions" [… Serm. 1, 2, 110] ; intra / naturae finis viventi [Serm. 1, 1, 49-50] “for he who's living into limits of nature” [ “that the good should be limited”, in Phld. Choices IV; necessary desires: quis \ humana sibi doleat natura negatis [Serm. I, 1, 74-75] “ by depriving that, nature is paining [...and] what beyond and on this side of which cannot consist naturalness, quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum [ibid. 106]; "To organize oneself straightforwardly, and not to contaminate the choices with the avoidances (fugienda petendis non immiscere ; recte dispensare/ to calculate-manage; inane abscindere soldo/to distinguish vain from tangible things [Serm. I, 2, 74 | 112]; Phld. Choice XIV: “some men perform each action while holding the opposite views, and thereby while being constrained by evils and, because of that, are in the grip of vices”'; verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae "to learn calculation and limits of life" [E, II, 2, 14; epilogismos (Phld. Sign. § 38 col. XXII), and nephon logismòs/ phronêsis (Men.132): quid sit futurum cras fuge quaerere, et quem Fors dierum cumque dabit, lucro adpone (Carm., I, 9): impossible forecast, calculus with 'think positive' ] and limits of real life (Ep. 2, 2, 144); non necessary desires and Peri haireseis kai phygai = De petendis et fugiendis, above cit. ]. "What is at hand that is more enjoyable" [Serm. II, 6, 13]. paucis contentus [Serm. 1, 3, 16]; contentus parvo [Serm. 2, 2, 110] “to content oneself with little”, Epicurus' tois oligois arkômetha, Men. 130. “I feed on olives, chicory, mallows. It be me granted using up what I have still procured …" [Carm. I. 31. 16-17] but : misce stultitiam consiliis breuem / dulce est desipere in loco “alternate prudence with craziness and short transgression, it's tasty being indulgent in due time” [Carm. IV. 12. 28; for succeeding in life , seeming crazy and being prudent is needed] [ataraxia, Menoec. 131; Epicurus: " I wouldn't like you shrink from a certain spontaneous craziness" [Lett.'s quote in Pragmatiae. PHerc. 1418].
"If the container isn't pure it sours whatever you put in" [Epist. I, 2, 53 = Lucr. 6.17]. "Those who sail across the sea change the climate but not their bad character" [Epist. I, 11; rational choice is suspicious of obsolete hunters and gatherers' instinct; all animals change place while they are suffering; that is no sensible/adaptive variation choice in big societies, for the Epicureans]; navibus atque quadrigis petimus bene vivere “we look for welfare into ships and quadrigas” [Ep. I. 11. 28-29]; "The excellent pleasure is in your constitution, not in rich property. Find the relish in some exercise" [Serm. II, 2, 18] [without ataraxia pleasure isn't expandable toward variations].
"Avoid the pleasure if you get it with pain. The greedy man is always in scowling need; fix a bounded goal". [Epist. I, 2, 54; a proper protreptikos to a young ('new recruit'?) Lollius Maximus]. [unlimited goals]
"That's enough to plead Jupiter who gives and takes, in order to keep alive, in order to get wealth: I'll get myself the mind's good health" [Epist. I, 18, 110; see V.S. 65; manuscripts report also other variants]. haec est condicio vivendi [...] responsura tuo numquam est par fama labori, “That is life's condition: fame is never parallel to one's commitment” [Serm. 2.8.64-5]. "Even god the father [...] won't alter what is yet done [...]", non tamen inritum, quodcumque retro est, efficiet neque diffinget infectumque reddet quod fugiens semel hora vexit [Carm. III, 29, 48 = “in the knowledge that what has come to be cannot be undone”, V.S. 55] [no Divine Providence' recompense; and no retroactivity no omnipotence].
I let believe it the Jewish Apellas, I understood the gods live secluded on, and if nature produces extraordinary events, it's not the gods that - in low spirits - send them from highest skies. [Serm. I, 5, 101-103]: deos didici securum agere aevom (Hor.) = didicere deos securum agere aevom (DRN V, 1315)]. “ Do not hope for immortality, that are warning the year and the hour which sweeps away the supporting day” [Carm. IV, 7]. [P.D. 1; Gods live secluded, soul mortality]
"The one, who fears the enough and gives up foolishly one's independence, which is better than wealth, will burden himself with a boss and obey all the time, without knowing how to use what is on hand" [Epist. I, 10, 39]. "I'm not subjugated to swear any master's words implicit trust" [Epist. I, 1, 13: nullius addictus iurare in verba magistri; why should he swear if, according to Epicurus "one wise man is not wiser than another"? (D.L.121)]. He is no philosopher, only a “curiosus” (Ia 17, 77), but faithful enough however to reading Aristippus covertly (furtim, Ep. I.1.17). He legitimizes nonmaximalist pragmatism and 'more or less' reasoning of rural Ofellus (abnormis sapiens crassaqua Minerva [Serm. II, 2, 3]); narrative example of Cervius (rusticus mus urbanum murem ... fabella [Serm. II, 6, 77]), "Usefulness, one may say, is the mother of justice and fairness" [Serm.,I.3.98], “things to be shunned from the things to be sought for” [Serm., I.3.113: fugienda petendis; haireseis kai phugai; at hand things can instead be shunned or sought by nature: i.e by senses and feeling], [beyond pedagogic and psychotherapeutic employments of Epicureanism: kata to pleon ê elatton, by more or less [Epicurus, Pherc 1056, Arr. 34. 17], or his optimus (he didn't hide he was a rich freedman) fathers' exempla [Serm. I,4, 105: ut viverem uti contentus eo quod mi ipse parasset, of what he had got]; “prudence is something even more valuable than philosophy”: Menoec. 132], that is character, aptitudes, health, position, opportunities]. H. and Maecenas – as leading intellectuals of the pax Augustana (reconciliation between civil belligerents) – were prohibited to define one's ideologies.
"Joys fall not just to the rich , and he has not lived inanely who from birth to death has passed unknown [Epist. 1, 17, 10] . In Ep. I. 1. he'd desire to devote himself philosophically to “what's a help to rich and poor, elder and younger persons", but he knows he's only in a position to hep rather himself (restat ut his ego me ipse regam (vv. 25-7) in “a bypath and a shortcut for an unnoticed life” [Epist. 1, 18, 103]; along of circle frame of mind he praises also individualism: quid te tibi reddat amicum “what makes you friend of yourself (ibid 101), ut mihi vivam “in order I live for myself” (ibid 107); so he interpretes the Epicurean lathe biôsas without utopian 'extra-parliamentary' second society nor proselytism [a 'live unknown' shared by Ovid (Tristia, III, 4, 25): "Live for yourself, and to your utmost power shun glittering renown"].
"The sage shall bear the name of foolish, the just person the name of unjust, if they persist in virtue beyond his aims". Naturam expelles furca, tamen usque recurret “Chase away nature with furk, she'll come back straight all the time” [Ep. I,6, 14 & I, 10, 23] [Limited goals implicate limited means. If wisdom is at all times improvable it's each time inadequate.]. We choose the virtues on account of pleasure and not for their own sake (Diog.L.138)].
"Here are the troubles of love: quarrel and again peace. If one believes to be able to regulate the weather, which volatilizes each time, he is not different from the one who want to fall head over heels a little and with moderation" [Serm. II, 3, 265; Epicureans looked on love with distrust].
"The laws of nature can not tell the difference between right and wrong just as they tell the needs and the dangers; [...] we have to admit that the law has been devised by concern of damage". [Serm. I, 3, 113]; “Usefulness, one may say, is the mother of justice and fairness” [Serm. I.3.96 ]. Scire volam quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti / discrepet et quantum discordet parcus avaro “I would like to realize how much are separate the cheerful guy who spares no expense from the squanderer, and how much the saver from avaricious” [Epist. II, 2, 192-3. No intersubjective statement; but it's not the matter of the absolute relativism of Skeptics or Cyrenaics! see the pragmatic P.D. 36; and also: Herm. at Porphyrius col. 15 b 9 sq. Wilke. Natural propensity to usefulness stand surely for mutual agreement].
“A cheerful soul avoids at present to worry what might be, and offsets bitter things with easy cheerful laughter” [Carm. II, 16]. haec est / vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique “that's life of they who are free of pitiful compulsory ambition” [Serm I, 6, 128]. “He chooses his life, being cheerful owner of himself, who can fairly say from day to day: 'I did live' “ [Carm. III. 40; to Maecenas. A big retort to aged businessman' shortage of time, and to collapse of values at his diagnostic verdict. A rare quote of Epicurean death' s doctrine. One lives for living not for building.] "He who defers the time of good living is similar to the small-towner who waits the river's shallows in order to run through" [Epist. I, 2, 41; cf. V.S. 14. ...there can be no second birth ...].
deus ridet si mortalis trepidat ultra fas. Aequus memento componere quod adest “god laughs up if a man worries more than what is wise. Remember, as a wise man, to look after what is at hand” [Carm 3, 29; cfr. Pherc 1251 Sect. 19: “And they live putting everything off in the belief that it will be possible for them to partake of some goods later on”]; grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur hora, “it'll be grateful the hour not longed for” [Epist. I. 4. 14], [U490: “ He who least needs tomorrow, will most gladly greet tomorrow”]; ratio et prudentia non locus aufert curas … quod petis hic est si te non deficit aequus animus (Greek euthymia) “reason and prudence, not resort, take off anxiety … what you seek is here, if you don't lack emotional steadiness. [Ep.. I, 29, 25] [prudence and at hand choices].
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