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Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was a statesman of ancient Rome and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar. He was a patron of Epicureanism, likely supported Philodemus, and is believed to have been the owner of the 'Villa of the Papyri' at Herculaneum.

In 58 BCE, while consul, he and his colleague, Aulus Gabinius, entered into a compact with Publius Clodius to plot against Cicero. Piso's reward was the province of Macedonia, which he began to adminster in 57 BCE until he was recalled, within two years, perhaps in consequence of the violent attack made upon him by Cicero's speech to the Senate, De provinciis consularibus.

On his return, Piso addressed the Senate in his defence, and Cicero replied with a coarse and exaggerated invective known as In Pisonem. Within the long litany of jabs, Cicero finds occasions to poke fun at Piso's Epicurean leanings by comparing him to Themista (26.62), belittling his past honors as examples of vanity deemed unworthy by Epicureans (25.60), and, while insinuating Piso's cowardice, chides him with mock encouragement, saying that public scorn "is no matter to worry a philosopher" but as for physical violence, "Aye, there’s the rub; pain is an evil, according to your view." (27.65)

Piso issued a pamphlet by way of rejoinder, and there the matter ended. Cicero may have been afraid to bring the father-in-law of Julius Caesar to trial. At the outbreak of the civil war, Piso offered his services as mediator. However, when Caesar marched upon Rome, he left the city in protest. Piso did not openly declare for Pompey but remained neutral and did not forfeit the respect of Caesar.

After the murder of Caesar, Piso insisted on the provisions of Caesar's will being strictly carried out and, for a time, he opposed Mark Anthony. Subsequently, he became one of Anthony's supporters and is mentioned as taking part in an embassy to Antony's camp at Mutina with the object of bringing about a reconciliation with Octavian.

He died after 33BC, as is provided by an inscription from Pola, Insc.Ital. , 1, 81 (Frisher 1991, 55-6, 115-25).

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